January 17, 2017
One of the great features of modern medical journals like CJSM is the ability to publish studies ahead of print – we call it “Published Online First.”
With the flexibility allowed by the internet and emerging media, we are able to get studies that have gone through peer review and are in the queue for printing out to the reading public months before they otherwise would see the light of day.
We have one of our “Published Online First” studies burning things up on emerging media. At CJSM we follow the Altmetrics on the studies in our pages, and this new one — Isometric Contractions Are More Analgesic Than Isotonic Contractions for Patellar Tendon Pain: An In-Season Randomized Clinical Trial — currently has a very hot rating of 107 (and climbing).
The treatment of such a common condition will be of inherent interest to those who practice sports medicine. Moreover, managing this nagging condition in mid-season can prove to be a Sisyphean task for the athlete and clinician. This study has great promise to make a significant impact on your care of the athletes you see.
Basketball season is upon us and our clinics have begun to fill with athletes ailing from patellar tendinopathy, seeking pain relief and a quick return to the hardwood. As a sports medicine fellow with a residency background in physical medicine and rehabilitation I have used this time to step back and review the therapeutic exercises we prescribe for tendinopathies. I have always paired the concept of eccentric strengthening with tendon repair. However, various other types of muscle contraction and strengthening exercises can (and perhaps should be) prescribed as well.
As an educational exercise I would like to take a moment to review the types of muscle contractions. Isometric contraction occurs without any movement of the joint on which the muscle acts. Isokinetic contraction occurs at a constant speed across a joint range of motion with variable resistance. Finally, isotonic exercises are performed through normal joint range of motion with a consistent resistance at variable speed. Isotonic contractions are further divided into concentric (muscle shortening) and eccentric (muscle lengthening).
Tendon pain is a factor that limits participation and performance in athletes. Eccentric strengthening has shown good clinical outcomes in the long-term; however, this intervention can lead to increased pain in the short-term, and in 2005 Visnes et al showed eccentric strengthening to be of no benefit for in-season athletes.