Prescribed Exercise for Managing Concussions — the CJSM Blog Journal Club

Our Editor-in-Chief Chris Hughes (R) and Jr. Assoc. Editor Jason Zaremski (L) taking a brief spell from their busy lives.

Our fifth edition of the year went live at the beginning of September, and it’s a special one:  we have devoted the entire issue to the theme of pediatric athletes.

Our guest editor Alison Brooks M.D., M.P.H. has assembled an impressive line up of authors, including John Leddy M.D. of SUNY Buffalo who is the lead on an interesting new study demonstrating the benefits of prescribed aerobic exercise in the recovery of adolescent males from sport-related concussion.

Our Jr. Assoc. Editor Jason Zaremski M.D. has submitted another insightful journal club piece looking at the details of Dr. Leddy’s study.

As fall approaches in the Northern Hemisphere, and spring in the Southern, sports-related concussions will continue to show up in a variety of sports our young athletes play.  This work from Dr. Leddy et al. (including both this new study and his CJSM 2018 study) will be transformative in the way we manage our athletes.

Enjoy the original research paper itself (here) and the journal club article (below).

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Jason Zaremski M.D., Junior Associate Editor CJSM

Title:

Leddy JJ, et al. A Preliminary Study of the Effect of Early Aerobic Exercise Treatment for Sport-Related Concussion in Males. Clin J Sport Med 2019 29(5):353-360.

Introduction:  

As the temperature begins to change and we enter the fall season, millions of student-athletes have returned to school and sport. With such large participation numbers in sport inevitably comes a rise in injury. One of these injuries is sports related concussions (SRC). In recent years, our overall knowledge of how to diagnose, manage, and treat SRC has improved thanks to the ever-growing research in this area. However, one aspect that is continuing to evolve is the timing and intensity of physical activity after sustaining a SRC. While rest (cognitive and physical) has been a mainstay of treatment in the past, there is a growing body of research that indicates physical activity may accelerate recovery versus physical rest only. Thus, it is our pleasure to provide this month’s CJSM Journal Club by reviewing Leddy and colleagues’ new work on the effects of early aerobic exercise as a potential treatment for SRC in adolescent males.

Purpose/Hypothesis(es):

The primary purposes of this research is to compare early subthreshold aerobic exercise (STAE) versus prescribed rest and days to recovery from concussion for adolescent males. The authors hypothesized that STAE would reduce the days to recovery after treatment prescription. Read more of this post

It’s a New Year — CSJM Blog Journal Club 2019 Starts Now

Japan (and its iconic Mt. Fuji) will be one of the places on the globe that will be enjoying an exciting 2019 in the world of sport.

We here at CJSM hope all of our readers have enjoyed a festive and relaxing holiday season.  I am sure for most of us reading this post, ‘things’ have picked back up, because the global sports world never sleeps.  From Australian Open tennis to the NFL playoffs to the English Premiership, and beyond, the sports (and sports medicine) scenes have been ushered in with a bang.

2019 promises to be an exciting year in sports all over, but perhaps in no place quite like Japan, as it hosts the Rugby World Cup at year’s end and busily prepares for the 2020 Summer Olympic Games in Tokyo.  I just spent my holidays there and fell in love with the country.  I am looking forward to posting more about the upcoming global events Japan is hosting this year and next.

CJSM has entered the new year with a bang as well, as we begin our 29th year with an issue that is full of interesting offerings.

Among the pieces of original research we have just published in this January 2019 issue is this one: Head Impact Exposure in Youth Soccer and Variation by Age and Sex. This piece has already received a good deal of attention. The accompanying editorial arguing (relatively speaking) against a ban on heading in youth soccer has realized a comparable buzz.

Jason Zaremski MD, Junior Associate Editor CJSM

We thought this would be a particularly good study to ‘de-construct’ in the Journal Club, and so we contacted our regular correspondent Jason Zaremski MD to pen one of his ever popular, recurring posts.  Thanks Dr. Zaremski, as always.

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Title:

Chrisman SPD, Ebel BE, Stein E, Sarah J. Lowry SJ, Rivara FP. Head Impact Exposure in Youth Soccer and Variation by Age and Sex. Clin J Sport Med 2019;29:3–10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JSM.0000000000000497

Introduction:  

The newest edition of the Journal Club commentary for the Clinical Journal of Sports Medicine (CJSM) will be a review of an original research manuscript highlighting a very interesting topic, heading in “soccer” (referred to as “football” outside the United States) and its effects on our youth athletes. As the authors note, there are more than ¼ of a billion soccer players worldwide. In the USA, there are approximately 24 million soccer players and more than 37% are youth players. In the past few years there have been growing concerns about heading in youth soccer and possible associations with concussions and sub-concussive head impact exposures (HIE). Due to these concerns, individuals and some leagues (from local levels to national) have suggested a ban of heading to limit body contact and potential HIE. However, prior research has suggested that the actual number of youth players heading a soccer ball as well as intentional impacts with head to ball are low and heading restrictions may not be indicated. (Comstock et al JAMA Ped 2015, Lynall et al MSSE 2016, Press and Rowson CJSM 2016). Therefore, in order to obtain more objective data, the authors of this study wanted to objectively measure HIE in males and females at the youth level.

Purpose/Specific Aim(s):

The purpose of this study was to measure HIE using adhesive-mounted accelerometers during 1 month of soccer. Read more of this post

CJSM Blog Journal Club — Can Cold IV Saline Mitigate the Effects of Exertional Heat Illness?

Can cooling this down prevent the sequelae of EHI? Photo courtesy of Wikimedia, NIAID

It’s November, and our sixth and final edition of 2018 has just published.  One of the original research articles in this edition is: Effects of Intravenous Cold Saline on Hyperthermic Athletes Representative of Large Football Players and Small Endurance Runners. 

Our Jr. Assoc. Editor Jason L Zaremski, MD  is today reprising his role as guest author for the CJSM blog journal club  and will take us through his read of the study.  Join in the conversation over this important new, original research by reading the article and the blog post below.  As ever, we love your comments:  you may give them here on the blog or Tweet them to us at @cjsmonline.

We’re nearing the end of 2018.  As the Journal publishing crew gets ready to celebrate Thanksgiving, we want to thank you for visiting us on this blog and reading and contributing to CJSM.

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Jason Zaremski, MD

Introduction:  The winter Journal Club commentary for the Clinical Journal of Sports Medicine (CJSM) will be a review of an original research manuscript highlighting an alternative method for treating exertional heat illness (EHI). As many of us in the sports medicine community are fully aware, EHI is a potentially devastating pathophysiological process that is treatable if timely and efficient action is taken.  Speed is of the essence. Heat stroke, a type of EHI where core body temperature is greater than 40°C/104°F, can result in significant central nervous system morbidity, and even death, if not treated immediately.

Morrison and colleagues performed a novel study assessing the effects of intravenous cold saline (IVCS) on hyperthermic collegiate football players and cross country runners. As the authors note, the use of cold saline infusion has not been studied for its effects on hyperthermic athletes, though it has been studied for rapid cooling for patients who have had cardiovascular and/or neurological insults in order to induce “therapeutic hypothermia.”

Purpose/Specific Aim(s):  To evaluate the cooling effects of IVCS (4°C/39°F) on hyperthermic athletes and compare to the effects of room temperature normal saline (RTNS) (22°C). A secondary aim was to assess if body composition had an effect on IVCS cooling rates.

Methods/Design: Read more of this post

Is it safe? Local anesthetic injections and long-term safety in athletes.

Is it safe?

Happy Autumn 2018 (or Spring, if you are one of our readers from below the equator). It’s that time for another edition of the Clinical Journal of Sports Medicine Online Journal Club, with our regular contributor,  Jason L Zaremski, MD, CAQSM, FACSM, FAAPMR.  The subject of today’s post is one of the original research articles highlighted in our September 2018 thematic issue on pain control in athletes.

Title: Sebak S; Orchard JW; Golding LD; Steet, E; Brennan SA; Ibrahim A. Long-Term Safety of Using Local Anesthetic Injections in Professional Rugby League for Modified Indications. 

 

Introduction:  The fall Journal Club commentary for the Clinical Journal of Sports Medicine (CJSM) will be an analysis of research examining the perceived side effects and long term safety of local anesthetic injections in professional rugby players over a 6 year period. Local anesthetics are a treatment modality used to reduce or eliminate pain in injured professional athletes with the goal of expedited return to play. Pain control and appropriate ­pharmacological interventions are a current hot topic not only in sports medicine but in all of medicine and society.  Consequently, this study by Sebak et al. in the September issue of the CJSM is a very interesting, time appropriate, and novel contribution to the literature of treatment options for pain control. We thank our colleagues in Australia for a wonderful contribution to the CJSM and sports medicine literature.

Hypothesis: The authors hypothesize that local anesthetic injections are reasonably safe. They predict that data from this study will reinforce the results of a previous similar study with similar authors from 1998-2007.

Dr. Jason Zaremski, Jr. Assoc. Editor of CJSM, and author of the CJSM Blog Online Journal Club posts

Methods/Design:  This was a retrospective case series evaluating the long term safety of local anesthetic injections before or during games involving professional rugby league players. The participants included players from the Sydney Roosters, a member of Australia’s National Rugby League (NRL), from 2008-2013. Read more of this post

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